Penjelasan Present Perfect Tense Lengkap

Penggunaan

Present Perfect Tense bisa digunakan untuk membicarakan sesuatu tentang tindakan, aktifitas atau peristiwa yang sudah dikerjakan namun belum selesai sampai saat ini. Dalam Present Perfect Tense kita biasa menggunakan kata-kata seperti how long, since atau for. Kata since digunakan bersama dengan kata penunjuk waktu tetap tertentu (2003, last month, last year ect) sedangkan kata for digunakan bersama kata penunjuk periode waktu tertentu (3 hours, five years, seven months).

Contoh :

I have known Maya since 2003.
Saya sudah kenal Maya sejak 2003.

I have been hungry for hours.
Saya merasakan lapar selama berjam-jam.

She has liked chocolate since I was a child.
Dia menyukai cokelat sejak saya masih kecil.

He is lived in Denpasar for two years.
Dia tinggal di Denpasar selama dua tahun.

We have lived in Yogykarta since 2007.
Kami telah tinggal di Yogykarta sejak 2007.

She has worked here for three months.
Dia telah bekerja di sini selama tiga bulan.

Present Perfect Tense bisa juga digunakan untuk menceritakan pengalaman hidup atau peristiwa yang dialami oleh seseorang yang terjadi kapan saja. Untuk fungsi tersebut present perfect tense biasanya sering menggunakan kata “ever” dan “never”.

Contoh :

I have been to Lombok.
Saya pernah ke Lombok.

They have visited Mecca five times.
Mereka telah mengunjungi Mekah lima kali.

She has never seen that film.
Dia belum pernah melihat film itu.

Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menggambarkan suatu aktifitas atau peristiwa yang berpatokan pada kata penunjuk waktu belum selesai (this month, this week, this year, today) dan hingga saat ini masih berlanjut.

Contoh :

I have not seen him this week.
Saya belum melihat dia(laki-laki) minggu ini.

He is drunk five cups of coffee today.
Dia minum lima cangkir kopi hari ini.

I’ve already moved house twice this year!
Saya sudah pindah rumah dua kali tahun ini!

Present Perfect tense bisa kita gunakan untuk menggambarkan suatu tindakan yang sudah terjadi tetapi peristiwa tersebut masih kita rasakan hasilnya hingga saat ini. Dalam hal ini present perfect tense akan berfokus pada HASIL yang sekarang rasakan akibat kejadian yang sudah terjadi.

Contoh :

I can not find my keys. Have you seen them?
Saya tidak dapat menemukan kunci saya. Kamu pernah melihatnya? HASIL => Saya tidak punya kunci

I have lost my keys.
Saya kehilangan kunci saya. HASIL=> Saya tidak bisa masuk rumah.

I have lost my wallet.
Saya kehilangan dompetku. HASIL=> Sekarang tidak punya dompet.

They have learned English.
Mereka telah belajar Bahasa Inggris. HASIL=> Jadi mereka bisa berbahasa Inggris.

They have missed the bus.
Mereka ketinggalan bus. HASIL=> Jadi mereka bisa terlambat.

Present perfect tense juga bisa digunakan untuk menggambarkan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi belakangan atau peristiwa akhir-akhir ini, walaupun hasilnya tidak dirasakan saat ini bahkan tidak berhubungan apapun dengan sekarang. Dalam hal ini present perfect tense sering menambahkan kata seperti just, yet, already, recently. Namun, penggunaan past simple tense pun dibenarkan.

Contoh :

The President has given a speech.
Presiden telah memberikan pidato.

I have just seen Linda.
Saya baru saja melihat Linda.

We have just got back from our holidays.
Kami baru saja kembali dari liburan kami.

Kata-kata penanda waktu

Just Baru saja
Never Tidak pernah
Already Sudah
Ever Pernah
Up to now Sampai sekarang
Recently Baru-baru ini
Since Sejak
For Selama

Struktur Present Perfect Tense

Kalimat Nominal

Subject Auxiliary Verb Been
+ I Have Been Here for 3 hours.
We have Been Here for 3 hours.
You have Been Here for 3 hours.
They Have Been Here for 3 hours.
He Has Been Here for 3 hours.
She Has Been Here for 3 hours.
It Has Been Here for 3 hours.
Budi Has Been Here for 3 hours.
Ani and Wati Have Been Here for 3 hours.
I Have not Been Here for 3 hours.
We have not Been Here for 3 hours.
You have not Been Here for 3 hours.
They Have not Been Here for 3 hours.
He Has not Been Here for 3 hours.
She Has not Been Here for 3 hours.
It Has not Been Here for 3 hours.
Budi Has not Been Here for 3 hours.
Ani and Wati Have not Been Here for 3 hours.
? Have I Been Here for 3 hours.
have We Been Here for 3 hours.
have You Been Here for 3 hours.
Have They Been Here for 3 hours.
Has He Been Here for 3 hours.
Has She Been Here for 3 hours.
Has It Been Here for 3 hours.
Has Budi Been Here for 3 hours.
Have Ani and Wati Been Here for 3 hours.

Kalimat verbal

Subject Auxiliary Verb Main Verb (verb 3)
+ I Have lived In that house for 3 years.
We have played Football for 3 years.
You have done Your work very well.
They Have gone To Palembang.
He Has typed The letter.
She Has played Outside for an hour.
It Has slept For 3 hours.
Budi Has lived Here since 2007.
Ani and Wati Have waited For a long time.
I Have not lived In that house for 3 years.
We have not played Football for 3 years.
You have not done Your work very well.
They Have not gone To Palembang.
He Has not typed The letter.
She Has not played Outside for an hour.
It Has not slept For 3 hours.
Budi Has not lived Here since 2007
Ani and Wati Have not waited For a long time.
? Have I lived In that house for 3 years ?
have We played Football for 3 years ?
have You done Your work very well ?
Have They gone To Palembang ?
Has He typed The letter ?
Has She played Outside for an hour ?
Has It slept For 3 hours ?
Has Budi lived Here since 2007 ?
Have Ani and Wati waited For a long time ?
  • Auxiliary verb “have” berubah sesuai dengan apa yang menjadi subjek kalimat.
  • Pada kalimat nominal, kata kerja utama dalam bentuk “been”.
  • Pada kalimat verbal, Main Verb (kata kerja utama) menggunakan bentuk past participle atau Verb 3.
  • Pada kalimat negatif, diantara Auxiliary Verb dan Main Verb (kata kerja utama) ditambahkan kata not.
  • Untuk membuat kalimat pertanyaan, Auxliary Verb diletakkan sebelum subjek.

Kata kerja khusus dalam Present Perfect

Be sebagai full verb

I, We, You, They
+ I have been to Medan.
+ We have been to Medan.
+ You have been to Medan.
+ They have been to Medan.
I have not been to Medan.
We have not been to Medan.
You have not been to Medan.
They have not been to Medan.
? Have I been to Medan.
? Have We been to Medan.
? Have You been to Medan.
? Have They been to Medan.
He, She, It
+ He has been to Medan.
+ She has been to Medan.
+ It has been there for hours.
He has not been to Medan.
She has not been to Medan.
It has not been there for hours.
? Has he been to Medan ?
? Has she been to Medan ?
? Has it been there for hours ?

Do sebagai full verb

I, We, You, They
+ I have done an exercise.
+ We have done an exercise.
+ You have done an exercise.
+ They have done an exercise.
I have not done an exercise.
We have not done an exercise.
You have not done an exercise.
They have not done an exercise.
? Have I done an exercise ?
? Have we done an exercise ?
? Have you done an exercise ?
? Have they done an exercise ?
He, She, It
+ He has done an exercise.
+ She has done an exercise.
+ It has done an exercise.
He has not done an exercise.
She has not done an exercise.
It has not done an exercise.
? Has he done an exercise ?
? Has she done an exercise ?
? Has it done an exercise ?

Have sebagai full verb

I, We, You, They
+ I have got a message.
+ We have got a message.
+ You have got a message.
+ They have got a message.
I have not got a message.
We have not got a message.
You have not got a message.
They have not got a message.
? Have I got a message ?
? Have we got a message ?
? Have you got a message ?
? Have they got a message ?
He, She, It
+ He has got a message.
+ She has got a message.
+ It has got a message.
He has not got a message.
She has not got a message.
It has not got a message.
? Has he got a message ?
? Has she got a message ?
? Has it got a message ?

Bentuk panjang (long form) dan bentuk pendek (short form) dalam Present Perfect.

POSITIVE
Long Form Short Form
I, We, You, They I, We, You, They
I have gone I’ve gone
He, She, It He, She, It
He has gone he’s gone

 

NEGATIVE
Long Form Short Form
I, We, You, They I, We, You, They
I have gone I’ve not gone/I haven’t gone
He, She, It He, She, It
He has gone He’s not gone/He hasn’t gone

 

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